Aptos: A infrastructureNew Generation of Layer 1
What is Aptos？
Aptos is a scalable proof-of-stake L1 blockchain. Developed by Aptos Labs, the project is considered the technical successor to Meta’s now-defunct blockchain network Diem. With the rise of blockchain as a new internet infrastructure, developers can quickly deploy tens of thousands of decentralized applications (Dapps). But blockchain usage is not yet ubiquitous due to frequent outages, high costs, low throughput limitations, and many security concerns.
To achieve mass adoption in the Web3 era, blockchain infrastructure needs to follow the path of cloud infrastructure as a trusted, scalable, cost-effective, and continuously improving platform for building widely used applications. The Aptos blockchain is designed with scalability, security, reliability and upgradeability as key principles.
Aptos uses a new smart contract programming language called Move to enable fast and secure transaction execution. Move is a Rust-based open-source programming language developed by the Diem Association team for creating customizable transaction logic and smart contracts. Move provers are formal verifiers for smart contracts written in the Move language, providing additional guarantees about contract invariants and behavior. This focus on security allows developers to better protect their software from malicious entities.
Supply: The initial total supply is 1 billion pieces, and the distribution ratio is: 51.02% for the community, 19% for core contributors, 16.5% for the foundation, and 13.48% for investors. The Tokens of the community foundations, which occupy the dominant part, are mainly used for Grants, incentives and other community development plans. Currently, these Tokens are mainly held by the Aptos Foundation and Aptos Labs, and some of them have been allocated to Aptos ecological projects, but have not yet Complete the release. Overall, these tokens will be released within 10 years. It is worth noting that the tokens in the community are not for the general user community. Except for trading and airdrops, users and ordinary investors have no access to APT.
The first 12 months of Tokens for core contributors and investors will not be released, and 1/16 Tokens will be unlocked every month after the 13th month after the launch of the main network, and the release will be completed in 6 months. The rest will be released in the 19th month and will be released in 29 months. The application scenarios and value explanations of APT Token have not yet been announced.
To achieve high throughput and low latency, the Aptos blockchain employs a pipelined and modular approach at key stages of transaction processing. Specifically, transaction propagation, block metadata ordering, parallel transaction execution, batch storage, and ledger verification all run concurrently. This approach makes full use of all available physical resources, improves hardware efficiency, and enables highly parallel execution.
Unlike other parallel execution engines, the Aptos blockchain does not require prior knowledge of the data to be read and written to break transaction atomicity like other parallel execution engines, and the Aptos blockchain does not impose such restrictions on developers . It can efficiently support atomicity with arbitrarily complex transactions, provide higher throughput and lower latency for real applications, and simplify development.
Architecture and Consensus
Aptos' modular architecture design supports client flexibility and is optimized for frequent and instant upgrades. Additionally, to rapidly deploy new technology innovations and support new web3 use cases, the Aptos blockchain provides an embedded on-chain change management protocol.
Aptos is a proof-of-stake (PoS)-based blockchain that uses a consensus mechanism called Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT). It works on the idea that the network can still function normally if one-third of the validators are offline or malicious.
HotStuff is the latest proposal of the BFT consensus protocol. The consensus algorithm of the Aptos network, AptosBFT, is based on HotStuff. It simplifies reasoning about security and addresses some performance limitations of previous consensus protocols. 'In HotStuff, the leader changes with each round of voting, he proposes a new block, and validators vote on it. Since all validators communicate with a single leader, the total number of messages sent is far Less than the amount of communication between validators. Once a block is deemed valid, it reaches finality in less than 1 second as Aptos claims.”
Finally, according to the Aptos white paper, the Aptos blockchain is trying to go beyond the performance of a single validator for future initiatives: its modular design and parallel execution engine support internal sharding of validators, and homogeneous state sharding provides horizontal throughput scalability. potential without adding additional complexity to node operators.